Vyshaya mera nakazaniya

   Capital punishment during the years of Joseph Stalin was referred to as Vyshaya mera (Supreme Measure) or Vyshaya mera nakazaniya (Supreme Measure of Punishment), or as simply Vyshaya or the acronyms VM and VMN. Lists of condemned prisoners were provided to Stalin in 1936–1938 with “VMN” typed next to them. Stalin usually signed the list, giving the NKVD authorization to shoot the condemned.

Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence. . 2014.

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  • Executions —    The last three decades of the tsarist regime experienced intense persecution of political rebels and anti Semitic pogroms, which were often commissioned by agents of the Okhrana. During 1881–1914, approximately 11,000 subjects of the tsar were …   Historical dictionary of Russian and Soviet Intelligence

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